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MenWeb online journal ISSN: 1095-5240
March, 2012

http://www.batteredmen.com/ResearchGraphs.htm

Battered Men - The Hidden Side of Domestic Violence

Latest Research Findings

Research Findings on Intimate Partner Violence Against Men

© 2012 by Bert H. Hoff, J.D. *
Adjunct Faculty, University of Phoenix School of Criminal Justice and Security
May be cited as: Hoff, B. H. (2012), Research Findings on Intimate Partner Violence Against Men. MenWeb on-line Journal (ISSN: 1095-5240 http://www.batteredmen.com/ResearchGraphs.htm)
This article is available in PowerPoint (497 KB) format.

 

SUMMARY: According to a 2010 national survey by the Centers for Disease Control and Department of Justice (NISVS), in the last 12 months more men than women were victims of intimate partner physical violence and over 40% of severe physical violence was directed at men. Men were also more often the victim of psychological aggression and control over sexual or reproductive health. Despite this, few services are available to male victims of intimate partner violence.

Here are some of the graphs from two articles I am working on, "The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey and the Perils of Advocacy Research" (publication pending in the Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research) and "National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey and the Perils of Advocacy Research" Here is a PowerPoint slide show with the complete set of graphics.

Click here to download a PowerPoint slide show presentation of these graphics

Feel free to use it, for friends and family, domestic viiolence people, policy-makers, legislators, other government officials, or whomever! I hope it's useful.

Physical violence

NISVS - More men than women victims of IPV  - pie chart

More men than women were victims of intimate partner physical violence within the past year, according to a national study funded by the Centers for Disease Control and U.S. Department of Justice. According to the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (hereinafter NISVS) released in December, 2011, within the last 12 months an estimated 5,365,000 men and 4,741,000 women were victims of intimate partner physical violence. (Black, M.C. et al., 2011, Tables 4.1 and 4.2)

3 Surveys - IPV Bar chart

There is a significant difference between the NVAWS and NISVS surveys, in the number of victims of physical violence (4,741,000 vs. 1,300,000 women and 5,365,000 vs. 835,000 men), for which I have no explanation. In the 2001 NVAWS survey, some 38% of the victims of intimate physical violence were men, but in the 2011 NISVS survey 53% were men. This is consistent with earlier studies showing that between 1975 and 1992 (Straus and Gelles, 1988, Straus, 1995), between 1998 and 2005 (Catalano , 2005) and between 2009 and 2010 (Truman, 2011, Table 6) violence against women dropped but violence against males stayed steady. (As a point of reference, Statistics Canada (2006, 2011) reports that 45.5% of the victims of present or former spousal violence were men. The 2010 National Crime Victimization Survey (Truman, 2011, Table 5) shows only 407,700 female and 101,530 male victims of intimate partner violence: for women that's less than a tenth of the victims reported in NISVS.)

NISVS - Over 40% of severe IPV is against men

The NISVS 2011 survey reports that in the last 12 months, 41.7% of the victims of severe physical violence were men. (Tables 4.7 and 4.8) Of the 4,741,000 female victims of violence, two-thirds (3,163,000 or 66.7%) were subjected to severe physical violence. (Table 4.7) For men, over 4 out of 10 (2,266,000 or 42.3%) were subjected to severe physical violence. The number of men is smaller, but that is still 2.26 million men.

This graph from Psychiatric News shows that about half IPV is mutual, and in the other half it is the female who most often initiates violence. This is consistent with over 1,000 peer-reviewed studies (seee Archer, 2000, Fiebert, 2011) which show that women initiate violence as often as men.

Psychological aggression, control of reproductive or sexual health

NISVS - all forms of aggression NISVS included data on other forms of aggression, but for rape and stalking it included stranger-to-stranger victimization. Here are the data for forms of aggression which did not also include stranger-to-stranger violence. More men than women were victims in all three measures of intimate partner violence where the data did not also include stranger-to-stranger violence (rape and stalking).
NISVS - Men more often victims of psychological aggression - pie chart

What is more violent, brandishing a knife at your spouse in the heat of an argument, refusing to wear a condom, or calling your spouse fat or stupid? NISVS did not ask about knife-wielding, but did ask about condoms and name-calling. Men were more often the victims of both psychological aggression ("expressive aggression" and "coercive control") and control of reproductive or sexual health.

Name-calling is one of the forms of "expressive aggression," which includes acting angry in a way that seemed dangerous, name-calling and insulting remarks. The other category of "psychological aggression" is "coercive control," such as restricting access to friends or relatives and having to account for all your time. In the last 12 months, 20,548,000 men (18.1%) and 16,578,000 (13.9%) women were subjected to psychological aggression. For women, this was split fairly evenly between expressive aggression and coercive control, while for men, 15.2% were subjected to coercive control and 9.3% to expressive aggression. The main forms of expressive aggression against women were insults (64.3%) and name-calling (58.0%). For men the top items were being called names (51.6%) and being told they were losers (42.4%)

NISVS - more men victims of control of reproductive/sexual health - pie chart

NISVS did not present detailed data on control of reproductive or sexual health. It summarized that "Approximately 10.4% (or an estimated 11.7 million) of men in the United States reported ever having an intimate partner who tried to get pregnant when they did not want to or tried to stop them from using birth control." (p. 48). "Approximately 8.6% (or an estimated 10.3 million) of women in the United States reported ever having an intimate partner who tried to get them pregnant when they did not want to." P. 48)

What services are available for men?

Studies show that men are less likely than women to seek help, and those that do have to overcome internal and external hurdles. (Galdas et al., 2005)(Cook 2009)

Shelter services for men

The Administration for Children and Families, HHS, which funds domestic violence programs, stated in its 2010 Report to Congress that 976 men were sheltered in FY 2005, and 1,049 in FY 2008. The comparable figures for women were 154,430 and 150,098.

Shelter services for women, children, pets and men

Ascione (2000, p. 6) in Safe Havens for Pets: Guidelines for Programs Sheltering Pets for Women who are Battered has identified 118 programs for pets in domestic violence situations. He surveyed 41 of these. Twelve of these reported sheltering a total of 161,304 animals each year (mean=13,442 each), with five each sheltering more than 10,000 animals. There are few shelters for men, and in FY 2008 only 1,095 men received shelter services (U.S. Administration for Children and Families, 2010, p. 10)

Douglas and Hines looked at the helpseeking behavior of male victims who volunteered for their survey. They reported (p. 7) that a large proportion of those who sought help from DV agencies (49.9%), DV hotlines (63.9%), or online resources (42.9%) were told, “We only help women.” Of the 132 men who sought help from a DV agency, 44.1% (n=86) said that this resource was not at all helpful; further, 95.3% of those men (n=81) said that they were given the impression that the agency was biased against men. Some of the men were accused of being the batterer in the relationship: This happened to men seeking help from DV agencies (40.2%), DV hotlines (32.2%) and online resources (18.9%). Over 25% of those using an online resource reported that they were referred to a batterer’s program. Some 16.4% of the men who contacted a hotline reported that the staff made fun them, as did 15.2% of the men who contacted local DV agencies.(p. 7) When men called the police, they arrested the man as often as the violent partner (33.3% vs. 26.5%) (p. 8)


References


Arehart-Treichel, J, (2007). "Men Shouldn't be overlooked as victims of partner violence" Psychiatric News August 03, 2007 42:15, page 31-33

Ascione, F.R. (2000). Safe Havens for Pets: Guidelines for Programs Sheltering Pets for Women who are Battered. Logan, Ut: Utah State University. (Sponsored by the Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation)

Black, M.C., Basile, K.C., Breiding, M.J., Smith, S.G., Walters, M.L., Merrick, M.T., Chen, J., & Stevens, M.R. (2011). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/pdf/NISVS_Report2010-a.pdf

Douglas, E.M. and Hines, D. (2011) "The helpseeking experiences of men who sustain intimate partner violence: An overlooked population and implications for practice." J. Fam. Vio. 2011 Aug;26(6):473-485 Published online 04 June 2011. National Institute of Mental Health Grant Number 5R21MH074590. Available at: http://www.clarku.edu/faculty/dhines/Douglas%20%20Hines%202011%20helpseeking%20experiences%20of%20male%20victims.pdf

Fiebert, M. S. and Gonzalez, D. M. (1997) "College women who initiate assaults on their male partners and the reasons offered for such behavior." Psychological Reports, 1997, 80, 583-90

Hoff, B. (2011). "U.S. national survey: More men than women victims of intimate partner violence, psychological aggression " Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research. Vol. xx, Iss. Xx, pp. xx-xxx (publication pending, July 2012)

Lyon, E., Bradshaw, J. and Menard, A. ().Meeting survivors' needs through non-residential domestic services and supports: Results of a multistate survey. Key Findings and Frequently Asked Questions. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice. p. 4. (National Institute of Justice Grant # 2009-­?IJ-­?CX-­?0027)

Saltzman LE, Fanslow JL, McMahon PM, Shelley GA. Intimate Partner Violence Surveillance: Uniform definitions and recommended data elements, Version 1.0. Atlanta (GA): National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1999. This is the most current version of this document, as of January 19, 2011.

Tjaden, P. G., & Thoennes, N. (2000). Full Report of Prevalence, Incidence and Consequences of Violence Against Women: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey. U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice & Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Research Report, Nov. 2000. NCJ 183781

Truman, J.S., (2011). National Crime Victimization Survey: Criminal Victimization, 2010. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. NCJ 235508

U.S. Administration for Children and Families (2010, March 30). Report to Congress FY 2007-2008: Family Violence Prevention and Services Program

Whitaker DJ, Haileyesus, T, Swahn, MH, Salztman, L (2007). Differences in frequency of violence and reported injury between relationships with reciprocal and nonreciprocal intimate partner violence. American Journal of Public Health, 97, 941-947.

Woods v. Horton (2008), 167 Cal.App.4th 658 CA Ct. of Appeal 3rd Dist. 08 C.D.O.S. 13247 "We find the gender-based classifications in the challenged statutes that provide programs for victims of domestic violence violate equal protection. We find male victims of domestic violence are similarly situated to female victims for purposes of the statutory programs and no compelling state interest justifies the gender classification. We reform the affected statutes by invalidating the exemption of males and extending the statutory benefits to men, whom the Legislature improperly excluded." See Men & Women Against Discrimination v. The Family Protection Services Bd., Kanawa County (VWA) Circuit Court, Civil Cause No. 08-C-1056. Decision filed Oct. 2, 2009.

Bert H. Hoff, J.D., is Adjunct Faculty at the University of Phoenix, where he teaches classes in criminal justice, management, political science and policy planning. He is formerly affiliated with the School of Social Policy at The American University and a former research scientist at the Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, is publisher of Men's Voices quarterly. He is WebMaster of MenWeb, the only resource in Washington that offers public education and victim education/outreach for male victims of domestic violence. His prior research has been published in the Journal of the Association of Advancement of Psychiatry and the Law, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Evaluation and Reseasrch, Journal of the Albert Einstein School of Medicine, and numerous government-funded research reports. Return to top

  
 


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