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Dating Violence Against Men

Women About as Likely to Initiate Dating Assault

Young Men At Risk, Ignored

 
CDC ignores its own study, to gender-polarize the people issue of dating violence



Books on Dating Violence

Even the Centers for Disease Control is not above "cooking" the data to provide a gender-polarized slant on a people issue and sweep the issue of domestic violence against men under the rug.Their Dating Violence Fact Sheet is all about woman victims and male perpetrators. For example, the Centers for Disease Control sponsored the 1998 National Violence Against Women survey that estimated that each year 1.5 million women and 835,000 men are estimated to be victums of domestic violence. Rhe CDC ignores its own study to dig out a 1995 study and report that "women were 6 times more likely than men to experience violence at the hands of an intimate partner.

There is one exception which provides the example of "cooking" the data.

  • Studies of college students9,10 and high school students11 suggest that both males and females inflict and receive dating violence in equal proportion, but the motivation for violence by women is more often for defensive purposes.10,12 Other studies have found that women and girls were victims of dating violence twice as often as men and boys,12,13 and that females suffer significantly more injuries than males.12,13Click on the footnoees 9-12 to see the studies. 12 is an earlier study by Makepeace, the author of 12. 13. Makepeace, J. M. Life events, stress and courtship violence. Family Relations 1983;32:101-109.

So what's the reality? Check out the synopses of the actual studies, below. (Click on the footnotes.) Study 10 found that 37% of the men and 35% of women inflicted some form of physical aggression, while 39% of the men and 32% of the women received some form of physical aggression. Gonzoles and Fiebert found that women initiated violence because she wanted to get his attention or he wasn't paying attention to her. Self-defense was far down the list.

The CDC cites study 12 (Makepeace) as saying that girls were victims of violence twice as often as boys. What the study actually found was that courtship violence was experienced by 16.7 % of respondents, and that "rates of commission of acts and initiation of violence were similar across gender." "Similar" is not twice, unless you're with the CDC and need to misrepresent study findings to promote your gender-polarization of a people issue.

The CDC tells us that females suffer significantly more serious injury than males. The Makepiece study they cite actually says that on term of injury, both men (98%) and women (92%) reported "none or mild" effects of violence.

     

The Bibliography

SUMMARY: The references below are the ones that specifically focus on dating rather than marital violence or overall domestic violence, within Dr. Martin Fiebert's excellent, comprehensive bibliography. Fiebert's bibliography examines 123 scholarly investigations: 99 empirical studies and 24 reviews and/or analyses, which demonstrate that women are as physically aggressive, or more aggressive, than men in their relationships with their spouses or male partners. The aggregate sample size in the reviewed studies exceeds 77,000.

     

     Aizenman, M., & Kelley, G. (1988).  The incidence of violence and acquaintance rape in dating relationships among college men and women.  Journal of College Student Development, 29, 305-311.  (A sample of actively dating college students <204 women and 140 men> responded to a survey examining courtship violence.  Authors report that there were no significant differences between the sexes in self reported perpetration of physical abuse.)

      Arias, I., Samios, M., & O'Leary, K. D. (1987).  Prevalence and correlates of physical aggression during courtship. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 82-90. (Used Conflict Tactics Scale with a sample of 270 undergraduates <95 men, 175 women> and found 30% of men and 49% of women reported using some form of  aggression in their dating histories with a greater percentage of women engaging in severe physical aggression.)

     Arias, I., & Johnson, P. (1989).  Evaluations of physical  aggression among intimate dyads.  Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 4, 298-307. (Used Conflict Tactics Scale-CTS- with a sample of 103 male and 99 female undergraduates. Both men and women had similar experience with dating violence, 19% of women and 18% of men admitted being physically aggressive.  A significantly greater percentage of women thought self-defense was a legitimate reason for men to be aggressive,  while a greater percentage of men thought slapping was a legitimate response for a man or woman if their partner was sexually unfaithful.)

    Bernard, M. L., & Bernard, J. L. (1983).  Violent intimacy: The family as a model for love relationships.  Family Relations, 32, 283-286.  (Surveyed 461 college students, 168 men, 293 women, with regard to dating violence.  Found that 15% of the men admitted to physically abusing their partners, while 21% of women admitted to physically abusing their partners.)

    Billingham, R. E., & Sack, A. R. (1986).  Courtship violence and the interactive status of the relationship.  Journal of Adolescent Research, 1, 315-325.  (Using CTS with  526 university students <167 men, 359 women> found Similar rates of mutual violence but with women reporting higher rates of violence initiation when partner had not--9% vs 3%.)

     Bookwala, J., Frieze, I. H., Smith, C., & Ryan, K. (1992). Predictors of dating violence: A multi variate analysis. Violence and Victims, 7, 297-311.  (Used CTS with 305 college students <227 women, 78 men> and found that 133 women and 43 men experienced violence in a current or recent dating relationship.  Authors reports that "women reported the expression of as much or more violence in their relationships as men."  While most violence in relationships appears to be mutual--36% reported by women, 38% by men-- women report initiating violence with non violent partners more frequently than men <22% vs 17%>).

    Burke, P. J., Stets, J. E., & Pirog-Good, M. A. (1988).  Gender identity, self-esteem, and physical and sexual abuse in dating relationships.  Social Psychology Quarterly, 51, 272-285.  (A sample of 505 college students <298 women, 207 men> completed the CTS.  Authors reports that they found "no significant difference between men and women in reporting inflicting or sustaining physical abuse."  Specifically, within a one year period they found that 14% of the men and 18% of the women reported inflicting physical abuse, while 10% of the men and 14% of the women reported sustaining physical abuse.)

    Carlson, B. E. (1987).  Dating violence: a research review and comparison with spouse abuse.  Social Casework, 68, 16-23. (Reviews research on dating violence and finds that men and women are equally likely to aggress against their partners and that "the frequency of aggressive acts is inversely related to the likelihood of their causing physical injury.")

    Caulfield, M. B., & Riggs, D. S. (1992). The assessment of dating aggression: Empirical evaluation of the Conflict Tactics Scale.  Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 4, 549-558. (Used CTS with a sample of 667 unmarried college students <268 men and 399 women> and found on a number of items significantly higher responses of physical violence on part of women.  For example, 19% of women slapped their male partner while 7% of men slapped their partners, 13% of women kicked, bit, or hit their partners with a fist while only 3.1% of men engaged in this activity.)

    Claxton-Oldfield, S. & Arsenault, J. (1999). The initiation of physically aggressive behaviour by female university students toward their male partners: Prevalence and the reasons offered for such behaviors. Unpublished manuscript.  (In a sample of 168 actively dating female undergraduates at a Canadian university, 26% indicated that they initiated physical aggression toward their male partners. Most common reason for such behavior was because partner was not listening to them.)

    Coney, N. S., & Mackey, W. C. (1999). The feminization of domestic violence in America: The woozle effect goes beyond rhetoric. Journal of Men’s Studies, 8, (1) 45-58.  (Authors  review the domestic violence literature and report that while society in general as well as the media portray women as “recipients of domestic violence...epidemiological surveys on the distribution of violent behavior between adult partners suggest gender parity.”)

     Deal, J. E., & Wampler, K. S. (1986).  Dating violence: The primacy of previous experience.  Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 3, 457-471.  (Of 410 university students <295 women, 115 men> responding to CTS and other instruments, it was revealed that 47% experienced some violence in dating relationships. The majority of experiences were reciprocal.  When not reciprocal men were three times more likely than women to report being victims.  Violent experiences in previous relationships was the best predictor of violence in current relationships.)

    DeMaris, A. (1992). Male versus female initiation of aggression: The case of courtship violence.  In E. C. Viano (Ed.), Intimate violence: interdisciplinary perspectives. (pp. 111-120).  Bristol, PA: Taylor & Francis. (Examined a sample of 865 white and black college students with regard to the initiation of violence in their dating experience.  Found that 218 subjects, 80 men and 118 women, had experienced or expressed violence in current or recent dating relationships.  Results indicate that "when one partner could be said to be the usual initiator of violence, that partner was most  often the women.  This finding was the same for both black and white respondents.")

    Fiebert, M. S., & Gonzalez, D. M. (1997).  Women who initiate assaults: The reasons offered for such behavior. Psychological Reports, 80, 583-590. (A sample of 968 women, drawn primarily from college courses in the Southern California area, were surveyed regarding their initiation of physical assaults on their male partners.  29% of the women, n=285, revealed that they initiated assaults during the past five years. Women in their 20's were more likely to aggress than women aged 30 and above.  In terms of reasons, women appear to aggress because they did not believe that their male victims would be injured or would retaliate.  Women also claimed that they assaulted their male partners because they wished to engage their attention, particularly emotionally.)

    Fiebert, M. S. (1996). College students' perception of men as victims of women's assaultive behavior. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 82, 49-50. (Three hundred seventy one college students <91 men, 280 women> were surveyed regarding their knowledge and    acceptance of the research finding regarding female assaultive behavior. The majority of subjects (63%) were unaware of the finding that women assault men as frequently as men assault women; a slightly higher percentage of women than men (39% vs 32%) indicated an awareness of this finding.  With regard to accepting the validity of these findings a majority of subjects (65%) endorsed such a result with a slightly higher percentage of  men (70% vs 64%)indicating their acceptance of this finding.)

      Follingstad, D. R., Wright, S., & Sebastian, J. A. (1991).  Sex differences in motivations and effects in dating violence.  Family Relations, 40, 51-57.  (A sample of 495 college students <207 men, 288 women> completed the CTS and other instruments including a "justification of relationship violence measure."  The study found that women were twice as likely to report perpetrating dating violence as men.  Female victims attributed male violence to a desire to gain control over them or to retaliate for being hit first, while men believed that female aggression was a based on their female partner's wish to "show how angry they were and to retaliate for feeling emotionally hurt or mistreated.")

     Foshee, V. A. (1996).  Gender differences in adolescent dating abuse prevalence, types and injuries.  Health Education Research, 11, (3) 275-286. (Data collected from 1965 adolescents in eighth and ninth grade in 14 schools in rural North Carolina. Results reveal that 36.5% of dating females and 39.4% of dating males report being victims of physical dating violence.  In terms of perpetrating violence 27.8% of females while only 15.0% of males report perpetrating violence.)

     Gelles, R. J. (1994). Research and advocacy: Can one wear two hats?  Family Process, 33, 93-95. (Laments the absence  of objectivity on the part of "feminist" critics of research demonstrating female perpetrated domestic violence.)

     Gonzalez, D. M. (1997).  Why females initiate violence: A study examining the reasons behind assaults on men.  Unpublished master's thesis, California State University, Long Beach.  (225 college women participated in a survey which examined their past history and their rationales for initiating aggression with male partners.  Subjects also responded to 8 conflict scenarios which provided information regarding possible reasons for the initiation of aggression.  Results indicate that 55% of the subjects admitted to initiating physical aggression toward their male partners at some point in their lives.  The most common reason was that aggression was a spontaneous reaction to frustration).

     Harders, R. J., Struckman-Johnson, C., Struckman-Johnson, D. & Caraway, S. J. (1998).  Verbal and physical abuse in dating relationships.  Paper presented at the meeting of American Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA.  (Surveyed 289 college students <97 men, 186 women> using a revised formed of the Conflict Tactics Scale.  Found that women were significantly more physically aggressive than men, particularly in the areas of: pushing, slapping and punching.)

Headey, B., Scott, D., & de Vaus, D. (1999).  Domestic violence in Australia: Are women and men equally violent?  Data from the International Social Science Survey/ Australia 1996/97 was examined.  A sample of 1643 subjects (804 men, 839 women) responded to questions about their experience with domestic violence in the past 12 months.  Results reveal that 5.7% of men and 3.7% of women reported being victims of domestic assaults.  With regard to injuries results reveal that women inflict serious injuries at least as frequently as men.  For example 1.8% of men and 1.2% of women reported that their injuries required first  aid, while 1.5% of men and 1.1% of women reported that their injuries needed treatment by a doctor or nurse.

     Henton, J., Cate, R., Koval, J., Lloyd, S., & Christopher, S. (1983).  Romance and violence in dating relationships.  Journal of Family Issues, 4, 467-482.  (Surveyed 644 high school students <351 men, 293 women> and found that abuse occurred at a rate of 121 per 1000 and appeared to be reciprocal with both partners initiating violence at similar rates.)

     Hoff, B. H. (1999).  The risk of serious physical injury from assault by a woman intimate.  A re-examination of National Violence against women survey data on type of assault by an intimate.  WWW.vix.com/menmag/nvawrisk.htm.  (A re-examination of the data from the most recent National violence against women survey (Tjaden & Thoennes, 1998) shows that "assaulted men are more likely than assaulted women to experience serious attacks by being hit with an object, beat up, threatened with a knife or being knifed.")

    Jackson, S. M., Cram, F. & Seymour, F. W. (2000).  Violence and sexual coercion in high school students' dating relationships.  Journal of Family Violence, 15, 23-36.  (In a New Zealand sample of senior high school students <200 women, 173 men> 21% of women and 19% of men reported having been physically hurt by their heterosexual dating partner.)

     Lane, K., & Gwartney-Gibbs, P.A. (1985).  Violence in the context of dating and sex.  Journal of Family Issues, 6, 45-49. (Surveyed 325 students <165 men, 160 women> regarding courtship violence.  Used Conflict Tactics Scale and found equal rates of violence for men and women.)

     Laner, M. R., & Thompson, J. (1982).  Abuse and aggression in courting couples.  Deviant Behavior, 3, 229-244. (Used Conflict Tactics Scales with a sample of 371 single individuals <129 men, 242 women> and found similar rates of male and female violence in dating relationships.)

      Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., & Vivian, D. (1994).  The correlates of spouses' incongruent reports of marital aggression. Journal of Family Violence, 9, 265-283.  (In a clinic sample of 97 couples seeking marital therapy, authors found, using a modified version of the CTS, that 61% of the husbands and 64% of the wives were classified as aggressive, 25% of the husbands and 11% of the wives were identified as mildly aggressive and 36% of husbands and 53% of wives were classified as severely aggressive.  Sixty-eight percent of couples were in agreement with regard to husband's overall level of aggression and 69% of couples were in agreement on wive's overall level of aggression. Aggression levels were identified as "nonviolent, mildly violent, or severely violent." Where there was disagreement, 65% of husbands <n=20> were under-reporting aggression and 35% of husbands <n=11> were over-reporting aggression; while 57% of wives <n=17> were under-reporting aggression and 43% of wives <n=13> were over-reporting aggression.)

     Lo, W. A., & Sporakowski, M. J. (1989).  The continuation of violent dating relationships among college students.  Journal of College Student Development, 30, 432-439.  (A sample of 422 college students completed the Conflict Tactics Scale.  Found that, "women were more likely than men to claim themselves as abusers and were less likely to claim themselves as victims.")

     Lottes, I. L., & Weinberg, M. S. (!996).  Sexual coercion among university students: a comparison of the United States and Sweden.  Journal of Sex Research, 34, 67-76.  (A sample of 507 Swedish students <211 men, 359 women> and 407 U.S. students <129 men, 278 women> responded to items on the CTS.  Results reveal that 31% of U.S. men compared to 18% of Swedish men reported being victims of physical violence by female partners during the previous 12 months.  While 31% of U.S. women comparted to 19% of Swedish women reported being victims of physical violence by male partners during the previous 12 months.)

      Magdol, L., Moffitt, T. E., Fagan, J., Newman, D. L., & Silva, P. A. (1997).  Gender differences in partner violence in a birth cohort of 21 year Olds: bridging the gap between clinical and epidemiological approaches.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 68-78.  (Used CTS with a sample of 861  21 year Olds <436 men, 425 women> in New Zealand.  Physical violence perpetration was reported during the previous 12 months by 37.2% of women and 21.8% of men, with severe violence perpetration by women at 18.6% and men at 5.7%.)

     Makepeace, J. M. (1986).  Gender differences in courtship violence victimization.  Family Relations, 35, 383-388. (A sample of 2,338 students <1,059 men, 1,279 women> from seven colleges were surveyed regarding their experience of dating violence.  Courtship violence was experienced by 16.7 % of respondents.  Authors report that "rates of commission of acts and initiation of violence were similar across gender."  In term of injury, both men (98%) and women (92%) reported "none or mild" effects of violence.)

     Marshall, L. L., & Rose, P. (1987).  Gender, stress and violence in the adult relationships of a sample of college students.  Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 4, 299-316.  (A survey of 308 undergraduates <152 men, 156 women> revealed that 52% expressed and 62% received violence at some point in their adult relationships. Overall, women report expressing more physical violence than men.  Childhood abuse emerged as a predictor of violence in adult relationships.)

      Marshall, L. L., & Rose, P. (1990).  Premarital violence: The impact of family of origin violence, stress and reciprocity.  Violence and Victims, 5, 51-64.  (454 premarital undergraduates <249 women, 205 men> completed the CTS and other scales. Overall, women reported expressing more violence than men, while men reported receiving more violence than women.  Female violence was also associated with having been abused as children.)

     Mason, A., & Blankenship, V. (1987).  Power and affiliation motivation, stress and abuse in intimate relationships.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 203-210.  (Investigated 156 college students <48 men, 107 women> with the Thematic Apperception Test <TAT>, Life Experiences Survey and the CTS.  Found that there were no significant gender differences in terms of the infliction of physical abuse.  Men with high power needs were more likely to be physically abusive while highly stressed women with high needs for affiliation and low activity inhibition were the most likely to be physically abusive.  Results indicate that physical abuse occurred most often among committed couples.)

     Matthews, W. J. (1984).  Violence in college couples.  College Student Journal, 18, 150-158.  (A survey of 351 college students <123 men and 228 women> revealed that 79 <22.8 %> reported at least one incident of dating violence.  Both men and women ascribed joint responsibility for violent behavior and both sexes, as either recipients or expressors of aggression, interpreted violence as a form of "love.")

     McCarthy, A.  (2001.)  Gender differences in the incidences of, motives for, and consequences of, dating violence among college students.  Unpublished Master's thesis, California State University, Long Beach.  (In a sample of 1145 students <359 men, 786 women> found that 36% of men and 28% of women responding to the CTS2 reported that they were victims of physical aggression during the previous year.  There were no differences in reported motives for aggression between men and women.)

     McKinney, K.  (1986).  Measures of verbal, physical and sexual dating violence by gender.  Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology, 14, 55-60.  (Surveyed 163 college students, 78 men, 85 women, with a questionnaire designed to assess involvement in dating abuse.  Found that 38% of women and 47% of men indicated that they were victims of physical abuse in dating relationships.  Also found that 26% of women and 21% of men acknowledged that they physically assaulted their dating partners.)

     Milardo, R. M. (1998).  Gender asymmetry in common couple violence.  Personal Relationships, 5, 423-438.  (A sample of 180 college students <88 men, 72 women> were asked whether they would be likely to hit their partner in a number of situations common to a dating relationship.  Results reveal that 83% of the women, compared to 53% of the men, indicated that they would be somewhat likely to hit their partner.)

     Morse, B. J. (1995).  Beyond the Conflict Tactics Scale: Assessing gender differences in partner violence.  Violence and Victims, 10 (4) 251-272.  (Data was analyzed from the National Youth Survey, a longitudinal study begun in 1976 with 1,725 subjects who were  drawn from a probability sample of households in the United States and who, in 1976, were between the ages of 11-17.  This study focused on violence as assessed by the CTS between male and female married or cohabiting respondents during survey years 1983 <n=1,496>, 1986 <n=1,384>, 1989 <n=1,436>, and 1992 <n=1,340>.  For each survey year the prevalence rates of any violence and severe violence were significantly higher for female to male than for male to female.  For example, in 1983 the rate of any violence male to female was 36.7, while the rate of any violence female to male was 48; in 1986, the rate of severe violence male to female was 9.5, while the rate of severe violence female to male was 22.8.  In 1992, the rate of any violence male to female was 20.2, with a severe violence rate male to female of 5.7; while the rate of any violence female to male was 27.9, with a severe violence rate female to male of 13.8.  Author notes that the decline in violence over time is attributed to the increase in age of the subjects.  Results reveal <p. 163> that over twice as many women as men reported assaulting a partner who had not assaulted them during the study year."  In 1986 about 20% of both men and women reported that assaults resulted in physical injuries.  In other years women were more likely to self report personal injuries.)

    O'Keeffe, N. K., Brockopp, K., & Chew, E. (1986).  Teen dating violence.  Social Work, 31, 465-468.  (Surveyed 256 high school students from Sacramento, CA., 135 girls, 121 boys, with the CTS.  Ninety percent of students were juniors or seniors, the majority came from middle class homes, 94% were average or better students, and 65% were white and 35% were black, Hispanic or Asian.  Found that 11.9% of girls compared to 7.4% of boys admitted to being sole perpetrators of physical violence.  17.8% of girls and 11.6% of boys admitted that they were both "victims and perpetrators" of physical violence.)

      Plass, M. S., & Gessner, J. C. (1983).  Violence in courtship relations: a southern sample.  Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology, 11, 198-202.  (In an opportunity sample of 195 high school and college students from a large southern city, researchers used the Conflict Tactics scale to examine courtship violence. Overall, results reveal that women were significantly more likely than men to be aggressors.  Specifically, in, committed relationships, women were three times as likely as men to slap their partners, and to kick, bit or hit with the fist seven times as often as men.  In casual relationships, while the gender differences weren't as pronounced, women were more aggressive than men. Other findings reveal that high school students were more abusive than college students, and that a "higher proportion of black respondents were involved as aggressors.")

     Riggs, D. S., O'Leary, K. D., & Breslin, F. C. (1990). Multiple correlates of physical aggression in dating couples. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5, 61-73. (Used CTS and studied 408 college students <125 men and 283 women>.  Found that significantly more women <39%> than men <23%> reported engaging in physical aggression against their current partners.)

     Rouse, L. P. (1988).  Abuse in dating relationships: A comparison of Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics.  Journal of College Student Development, 29, 312-319.  (The use of physical force and its consequences were examined in a diverse sample of college students.  Subjects consisted of 130 whites <58 men, 72 women>, 64 Blacks <32 men, 32 women>, and 34 Hispanics <24 men, 10 women>.  Men were significantly more likely than women to report that their partners used moderate physical force and caused a greater number of injuries requiring medical attention.  This gender difference was present for Whites and Blacks but not for Hispanics.)

      Rouse, L. P., Breen, R., & Howell, M. (1988).  Abuse in intimate relationships.  A Comparison of married and dating college students.  Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 3, 414-429. (A sample of 130 married (48 men, 82 women) college students and 130 college students in dating relationships (58 men, 72 women) reported their experience of physical abuse in intimate relationships.  Men were more likely to report being physically abused than women in both dating and marital relationships.)

     Ryan, K. A. (1998).  The relationship between courtship violence and sexual aggression in college students.  Journal of Family Violence, 13, 377-394.  (A sample of 656 college students <245 men, 411 women> completed the CTS.  Thirty four percent of the women and 40% of the men reported being victims of their partner's physical aggression.)

     Sack, A. R., Keller, J. F., & Howard, R. D. (1982).  Conflict tactics and violence in dating situations.  International Journal of Sociology of the Family, 12, 89-100.  (Used the CTS with a sample of 211 college students, 92 men, 119 women.  Results indicate that there were no differences between men and women with regard to the expression of physical violence.)

     Shook, N. J., Gerrity, D. A., Jurich, J. & Segrist, A. E. (2000).  Journal of Family Violence, 15, 1-22.  (A modified Conflict Tactics Scale was administered to 572 college students <395 women; 177 men>.  Results reveal that significantly more women than men, 23.5% vs 13.0%, admitted using physical force against a dating partner.)

     Sigelman, C. K., Berry, C. J., & Wiles, K. A. (1984).  Violence in college students' dating relationships.  Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 5, 530-548.  (Surveyed 504 college students <116 men, 388 women> with the Conflict Tactics Scale and found that men and women were similar in the overall amount of violence they expressed but that men reported experiencing significantly more violence than women.)

      Spencer, G. A., & Bryant, S. A. (2000).  Dating violence: A comparison of rural, suburban and urban teens.  Journal of Adolescent Health, 25 (5) 302-305.  (A sample of 2094 high school students in upper New York State indicated their experience of physical dating violence.  There were a similar number of boys and girls surveyed, with more subjects from urban areas than rural or suburban areas.  The majority of subjects were white non-Hispanic.  Males in each region were more likely to report being victims of physical dating violence than females in each region.  Specifically, 30% of rural boys and 20% of urban and 20% of suburban boys reported being victims of partner physical aggression while 25% of rural girls and 16% of suburban and 13% of urban girls reported victimization.)

     Stets, J. E. & Henderson, D. A. (1991).  Contextual factors surrounding conflict resolution while dating: results from a national study.  Family Relations, 40, 29-40.  (Drawn from a random national telephone survey, daters <n=277; men=149, women=128> between the ages of 18 and 30, who were single, never married and in a relationship during the past year which lasted at least two months with at least six dates were examined with the Conflict Tactics Scale.  Findings reveal that over 30% of subjects used physical aggression in their relationships, with 22% of the men and 40% of the women reported using some form of physical aggression.  Women were "6 times more likely than men to use severe aggression <19.2% vs. 3.4%>...Men were twice as likely as women to report receiving severe aggression <15.7% vs. 8%>."  Also found that younger subjects and those of lower socioeconomic status <SES> were more likely to use physical aggression.)

     Stets, J. E., & Pirog-Good, M. A. (1987).  Violence in dating relationships, Social Psychology Quarterly, 50, 237-246.  (Examined a college sample of 505 white students.  Found that men and women were similar in both their use and reception of violence.  Jealousy was a factor in explaining dating violence for women.)

      Stets, J. E. & Pirog-Good, M. A. (1989).  Patterns of physical and sexual abuse for men and women in dating relationships: A descriptive analysis,  Journal of Family Violence, 4, 63-76.  (Examined a sample of 287 college students <118 men and 169 women> and found similar rates for men and women of low level physical abuse in dating relationships.  More women than men were pushed or shoved <24% vs 10%> while more men than women were slapped <12% vs 8%>.  In term of unwanted sexual contact 22% of men and 36% of women reported such behavior.  The most frequent category for both men <18%> and women <19%> was the item, "against my will my partner initiated necking".)

      Straus, M. A. (1995).  Trends in cultural norms and rates of partner violence: An update to 1992.  In S. M. Stich & M. A. Straus (Eds.)  Understanding partner violence: Prevalence, causes, consequences, and solutions (pp. 30-33).  Minneapolis, MN: National Council on Family Relations. (Reports finding that while the approval of a husband slapping his wife declined dramatically from 1968 to 1994 <21% to 10%> the approval of a wife slapping her husband did not decline but remained at 22% during the same period.  The most frequently mentioned reason for slapping for both partners was sexual unfaithfulness.  Also reports that severe physical assaults by men declined by 48% from 1975 to 1992--38/1000 to 19/1000 while severe assaults by women did not change from 1975 to 1992 and remained above 40/1000.  Suggests that public service announcements should be directed at female perpetrated violence and that school based programs "explicitly recognize and condemn violence by girls as well as boys.")

    Straus, M. A., & Mouradian, V. (1999). (Study of college students report of injuries suffered in dating situations).  Unpublished data.  ((In a study of 1,034 dating couples AT 2 US universities injury rates based on responses to the revised CTS (CTS2) revealed that 9.9% of men and 9.4% of women report being injured by the opposite sex.  In terms of inflicting injuries, 10.1% men and 8.0% indicated that they inflicted injuries on their partners.)

    Sugarman, D. B., & Hotaling, G. T. (1989). Dating violence:  Prevalence, context, and risk markers.  In M. A. Pirog-Good & J. E. Stets (Eds.)  Violence in dating relationships: Emerging social issues (pp.3-32).  New York: Praeger.  (Reviewed 21 studies of dating behavior and found that women reported having expressed violence at higher rates than men--329 per 1000 vs 393 per 1000.)

      Thompson Jr., E. H. (1990).  Courtship violence and the male role.  Men's Studies Review, 7, (3) 1, 4-13.  (Subjects were 336 undergraduates <167 men, 169 women> who completed a modified version of the CTS.  Found that 24.6% of men compared to 28.4% of women expressed physical violence toward their dating partners within the past two years.  Found that women were twice as likely as men to slap their partners.)

     Thompson Jr., E. H. (1991).  The maleness of violence in data relationships: an appraisal of stereotypes.  Sex Roles, 24, 261-278.  (In a more extensive presentation of his 1990 article, the author concludes that, "a more masculine and/or less feminine gender orientation and variations in relationship seriousness proved to be the two strongest predictors of both men's and women's involvement in courtship violence.")

      Waiping, A. L., & Sporakowski, M. J. (1989).  The continuation of violent dating relationships among college students.  Journal of College Student Development, 30, 432-439.  (Using a modified version of the CTS, authors examined courtship violence in a sample of 422 college students <227 women, 195 men>.  Women more often than men <35.3% vs 20.3%> indicated that they physically abused their partners.)

      White, J. W., & Humphrey, (1994).  Women's aggression in heterosexual conflicts.  Aggressive Behavior, 20, 195-202.  (Eight hundred and twenty nine women <representing 84% of entering class of women> 17 and 18 years old, entering the university for the first time completed the CTS and other assessment instruments.  Results reveal that 51.5% of subjects used physical aggression at least once in their prior dating relationships and, in the past year, 30.2% reported physically aggressing against their male partners.  Past use of physical aggression was the best predictor of current aggression.  The witnessing and experiencing of parental aggression also predicted present aggression.)

     White, J. W., & Koss, M. P. (1991).  Courtship violence: Incidence in a national sample of higher education students.  Violence and Victims, 6, 247-256.  (In a representative sample of 2,603 women and 2,105 men it was found that 37% of the men and 35% of women inflicted some form of physical aggression, while 39% of the men and 32% of the women received some form of physical aggression.)

You can find out more about Dr. Martin Fiebert and the research he has conducted at his Web site.

     

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